Posted dd Mmmm 201?, Revised December, 2010

       

In Celebration of Psalm Nineteen:
God's handiwork in Creation


    Fossil Illustrations of  Plant and Animal Classes
by 19th Century Geology Authors*

All of the animal phyla (with the possible exception of the Craniata) appear suddenly in the fossil record during the Cambrian Age, in an event known as the Cambrian Explosion. These initial species fanned out during the subsequent ages to form the broad range of animals that we know today. 

The purpose of this chapter is to consider the fossil evidence for diversification of the animal phyla into the major Classes -- fishes, insects, mammals, etc. (see Figure 1)
01. The full Creation Narrative of course extends  onwards to the lower levels of classification.

Note: There is a whole level of detail that (probably) will be opened up at some point in the future but which can't be discussed here because science has not yet progressed to that point....

Collage of Fossils (Mantell)





Classification
Figure 1
Classification

****>>> For a list of all phyla, subphyla and  classes see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_animal_classes
Classes of Vertebrates:
http://anthro.palomar.edu/animal/animal_4.htm


Invertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations from Ramsay, Geology of Great Britain (1878)
pg.
Note:
√ = Trilobites
Ex = Extinct Class
A-4
Corals
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-34
Echinodermata
60
hi-res
Cambrian






   Lingulella (Ex)

62
hi-res
Lower Ordovician (?)




Discina



64
hi-res
Lingula Flag (Ordovician?)



Crustacea
   Hymenocarus
Bivalvia
   Orthis

   Lingulella (Ex)
66
hi-res
Lower Ordovician





   Orthis
Gastropod?
   Bellerophon



73
hi-res
Upper Ordovician
   Llandeilo 463-461 Ma
   Caradoc   461-449 Ma




   Orthis
   Murchisonia
Cephalapod
   Lituites
Gastropod
   Euomphalus



94
hi-res
Upper Silurian




   Bellerophon

Articulata
   Strophomena
??
    Pentamerus
Ophiuroidea
   Protaster
97
hi-res
Upper Silurian

Anthozoa (Coral)
   Petraia
   Arachnophyllum
   Cyathophyllum
   Omphyma


Cephalapod
   Orthoceras
      (nautiloid)

   Cyrtia
Rhynchonella (Ex)

101
hi-res
Devonian

Favosites
Heliolites


Gastropod
   Murchisonia
   Calceola
Bivalvia
   Spirifera
   Anodonta
   Avicula

   Stringocephalus

114
hi-res
Devonian
   Old Red Sandstone


Arachnida
(Sea Scorpion)
   Pterygotus

Crustacea
   Estheria




132
hi-res
Carboniferous


Merostomata
   Belinurus
   Prestwichia

Bivalvia
   Anthracomya
   Anthracosia



148
hi-res
Permian






   Fenestella
   Lingula
   Spirifera
   Strophalosia
   Camarophoria

156
hi-res
Triassic



Crustacea
   Estheria




163
hi-res
Triassic (Rhaetic - 210 Ma)




Bivalvia
   Pecten (Scallop)
   Cardium
   Discina
   Myophoria
   Avicula



168
hi-res
Lower Jurassic (Lias)




Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
   Nautilus
   Belemnites





170
hi-res
Lower Jurassic (Lias)



Bivalvia
   Grypha (Oyster)
   Lima

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Rhynchonella
   Spirifera
Terebratula

179
hi-res
Mid Jurassic (Oolitic)








Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
   Nautilus
Bivalvia
   Ostrea
   Trigonia
   Pholacloruya
Gastropods
   Purpuroidea

Terebratula
Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Rhynchonella

Acrosalenia
186
hi-res
Mid Jurassic (Oolitic)
Isastrea


Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
   Belemnites
Bivalvia
   Gryphaea (Oyster)
   Pholadomya
Gastropoda
   Chemnitzia


Cidaris
189
hi-res
Upper Jurassic (Upper Oolite)
Kimmeridge Clay
    (160-145 Ma)




Bivalvia
   Ostrea
   Cardium
   Pecten (Scallop)
   Lucina
   Trigonia
   Gryphaea
   Lucina
Gastropoda
   Natica
   Cerithium (Snail)

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Rhynchonella

204
hi-res
Oolites
   Purbeck and Wealden



Crustacea
   Cypris
Bivalvia
   Ostrea
   Unio
   Cyrena ?
Gastropoda
   Physa
   Paludina



215
hi-res
Cretaceous
   Atherfield Clay
   Lower Greensand




Bivalvia
   Pecten
   Perna
Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Ancyloceras
      Crioceras
   Hamites
Decapoda
   Meyeria

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Terebratula

219
hi-res
Cretaceous
   Gault Fossils




Bivalvia
   Lima
   Inoceramus
   Nucula
   Plicatula
Gastropoda
   Natica
   Rostellaria



225
hi-res
Cretaceous
   Upper Greensand

A-4 Porifera
   Siphonia


Bivalvia
   Pecten

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Terebratula
   Rhynchonella
Selenia ??

229
hi-res
Cretaceous
   Fossils of the Chalk

Pr-3 Foraminifera
   Globigerina


Bivalvia
   Pecten
   Lima
   Inoceramus

Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
   Ammonites
       Turrilites
       Scaphites

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Terebratula
Echinoidea
   Micraster
   Echinoconus
   Ananchites
Asteroidea
   Goniaster
240
hi-res
Eocene
   Thanet Sand




Bivalvia
   Ostrea
   Cyprina
   Pectunculus
   Cucullea?
   Cardium
   Pholadomya
   Corbula
Gastropoda
   Natica
   Aporrhais



243
hi-res
Eocene
   Woolwich and Reading Beds



Crustacea
   Hoploparia
Bivalvia
   Ostrea
   Unio
   Cyrena?
   Panopoea
Gastropoda
   Cerithium
   Pitharella?
   Melania



246
hi-res
Eocene
   London Clay









Palm Nut
   Nipadites


Bivalvia
   Cardium
   Cardita
Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
Gastropoda
   Voluta
   Pleurotoma
   Cassidaria
Decapoda
   Hoploparia

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Terebratula

250
hi-res
Eocene
   Bracklesham and Barton Beds




 Bivalvia
   Cardium
   Cardita
   Byssoarca
   Sanguinolaria
   Chama
   Crassatela
Gastropoda
   Conus
   Fuscus
   Murex
   Oliva
   Ancillaria
   Turritella
   Voluta
   Phorus (Snail)



253
hi-res
Eocene
   Headon and Bembridge Beds





Chara (algae)


Bivalvia
   Cytherea
Gastropoda
   Paludina
   Voluta
   Limnaea
   Bulimus
   Helix
   Cerithium
   Planorbis



271
hi-res
Pliocene
   Coralline Crag Fossils




Bivalvia
   Pecten
   Pholadomya
   Glycimeris
Gastropoda
   Fasciolaria

Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Terebratula
Echinobrissus
   Brissus
273
hi-res
Pliocene
   Red Crag Fossils




Bivalvia
   Astarte
   Capulus
   Cardium
   Cyprina
   Pectunculus
Gastropoda
   Trophon
   Cassidaria
   Buccinum
   Voluta



417
hi-res
Post-Pliocene Fossils,
   Clyde beds




Bivalvia
   Pecten
   Astarte
   Cyprina
   Mya
   Saxicava
Gastropoda
   Scalaria
   Natica
   Buccinum
   Turritella
   Aporrhais



pg.


A-4
Corals
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-34
Echinodermata


Invertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations from Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy (1837)
Pl.
Desc.
Note
Ex = Extinct Class
A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-34
Echinodermata
28
28
Lias (ink bags)



Cephalopoda
   Loligo (Squid)



29
29


Lias of Lyme Regis
(Late Triassic-Early Jurassic)

Cephalopoda
   Loligo (Squid)



30
30


Lias of Lyme Regis
Cephalopoda
   Loligo (Squid)



31
31


Lias
   Muschel kalk

Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
      Pompilius


Rhynchonellata (Ex)
   Rhyncholites

32
32


Lias

Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
   Hexagonus



33
33


Lias

Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
      Striatus



34
34


Lias

Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
      Pompilius



35
35




Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Obtusus



36
36




Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Obtusus



37
37
Various Forms of
Ammonites



Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Amaltheus - Lias
      Varicosus - Greensand
      Humphriesianus - Oolite
      Lamberti - Oxford Clay
      Planulatus - Jura Limestone
      Bucklandi - Lias
      Lautus - Gault
      Catena - Calcareous Grit
      Varians - Jura Limestone
      Striatus - Lias




38
38
Lias at Whitby



Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Heterophyllus



39
39
[Same as 38]



[Same]


40
40




Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Henslowi
      Striatus
      Sphaericus
      Nodosus



41
41
cross-section



Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Giganteus



42
42




Cephalopoda
   Ammonites
      Varicosus
      Varicostatus
   Nautilus



43
43




Cephalopoda
   Nautilus
      Sypho
      Ziczac



44
44




Cephalopoda
   Belemnites



44a
44a








44aa
44aa
Lias at Lyme
    ink bags



Cephalopoda
   Nautilus



45
45
trilobites & related
recent animals







46
46
Trilobites







46a
46a
Carboniferous


Arachnida
   Scorpiones





46aa
46aa
Carboniferous (Figs. 1-3, 13)
Oolyte
   Stonesfield Slate (Figs. 4-10)
Miocene (Fig.  11,12)

Curculionidæ
   Curculio (Beetle) (Fig. 1,2,10)
Merostomata
   Limulus (Fig. 3)
Arachnida
   spider (Fig. 12)
Arachnida
   Scorpiones (Fig. 13)

Insecta
   Coleoptera
      Buprestidae
         Buprestis (Fig. 4-9)
   Diptera
      Tipulidae (Fig. 11)






47
47
Carboniferous, Oolite





Crinoidea
   Apiocrinites
   "Stone Lilies"
48
48
Muschel-kalk Gottingen






Crinoidea
   Encrinites
49
49







Crinoidea
   Encrinites
50
50







Crinoidea
   Encrinites
51
51
Lias of Lyme Regis
(Late Triassic-Early Jurassic)






Crinoidea
   Pentacrinites
52
52







Crinoidea
   Pentacrinites
53
53







Crinoidea
   Pentacrinites
54
54
Recent Corals
Anthozoa
   Madrepora
   Caryophyllia
   Meandnina
Sea Anemone
   Actinia






Pl.
Desc.
Note
Ex = Extinct Class
A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-34
Echinodermata


Vertebrate (A-37) Animal Fossil Illustrations from Ramsay, Geology of Great Britain (1878)
pg.
Note
Ex = Extinct Class
Agnatha
Jawless Fish
Chondrichthyes
Cartilagenous Fish
Osteichthyes
Bony Fish
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia



114
hi-res
Devonian
   Old Red Sandstone
Osteostraci (Ex)
(Armored)
   Cephalaspis
Ganoids
(Bony scale)
   Phaneropleuron
   Holoptychius
 Placoderms
(Enamel Scale)
   Pterichthys

Actinopterygii
(Armored)
   Palaeoniscus






148
hi-res
Permian Osteostraci (Ex)
(Armored)









170
hi-res
Lower Jurassic (Lias)



Ichthyosauria
   Ichthyosaurus
Plesiosauria
   Plesiosaurus




273
hi-res
Red Crag Fossils
Carcharodon
   (shark tooth)








NOTE: Only a few plant fossil images in Ramsay.

Paleobiology Database
ZipcodeZoo


Agnatha - Jawless fish. No scales (lampreys, hagfish)
Chondrichthyes - Cartilagenous fish (sharks and rays)
Osteichhyes - bony fish (Coelacanth)
Amphibia - land/water. Larval stage (?) gills+lungs.
Reptilia - lungs. amniotic egg (usu. CaCO3 hard shell) laid on land. Internal fertilization.
Aves - Warm-blooded Feathers? wings? Teeth???
Mammalia - mammary glands, strong jaws, teeth

Vertebrate (A-37) Animal Fossil Illustrations from Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy (1837)
Pl.
Desc.
Note
Ex = Extinct Class
Agnatha
Jawless Fish
Chondrichthyes
Cartilagenous Fish
Osteichthyes
Bony Fish
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia

02
02
Oolite
   Mammalia
      Jaws & Teeth






Marsupialia
   Didelphys
Proboscidea
   Dinotherium
03
03
Eocene
   Mont Martre






Pachydermata
04
04
Eocene
   Mont Martre






Perissodactyla
   Palaeotherium
Artiodactyla
   Anoplotherium
05
05
Pliocene  ca. 5.3 Ma






Xenarthra
   Megatherium
      Sloth
06
06
Pliocene  ca. 5.3 Ma
   teeth & vertebra






Xenarthra
   Megatherium
      Sloth
07
07
Lias
   Lyme Regis
(Late Triassic-Early Jurassic)




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Platyodon


08
08
Lias
   Lyme Regis




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Communis
      Intermedius


09
09
Lias
   Lyme Regis




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Platydon head


10
10
Lias
   Lyme Regis




LSaurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Platydon head


11
11
Lias
   Lyme Regis




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Communis


12
12
Lias
   Lyme Regis




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Paddles
Monotremata
   Ornithorhynchus


13
13
Lias
   Lyme Regis




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Coprolite/Stomach


14
14
Lias
   Lyme Regis




Saurian
   Ichthyosauria
      Coprolite/Scales


15
15
Lias
   Lyme Regis
Upper Cretaceous
   Cenomanian 91-96 Ma




Coprolite
   Intestines


15a
15a
Solenhofen



Coprolite
   Cololite (Intestines)


16
16
Lias at Lyme Regis



Plesiosauria
   Plesiosaurus


17
17
Lias of Street




Plesiosauria
   Plesiosaurus


18
18
Lias of Street



Plesiosauria
   Plesiosaurus


19
19
Lias marl at Lyme Regis




Plesiosauria
   Plesiosaurus


20
20
Upper Cretaceous




Squamata
   Mosasaurus (Head)


21
21
Oolitic?  



Pterosauria
   Pterodactylus
      Longirostris


22
22
Oolitic?
   Solenhofen Slate




Pterosauria
   Pterodactylus
      Crassirostis
      Brevirostris


23
23
Middle Jurassic
   Stonesfield Slate




Dinosauria
   Megalosaurus


24
24
Oolite
   Wealdon




Dinosauria
   Iguanodon


25
25
Lias, Oolite




Crocodylia
   Teleosaurus


25a
25a
Lower Eocene (56-49 Ma)
   London Clay
Jurassic
   Kimmeridge Clay




Crocodylia
   Teleosaurus


26
26
Triassic Footprints
   New Red Sandstone




 Testudinidae
   Turtle footsteps?


26a
26a
Triassic Footprints
   New Red Sandstone
Oolite Footprints
   Stonesfield






Marsupial?
Opossum?
26aa
26aa
Oolite Footprints
   Stonesfield




Pseudosuchia
   Chirotherium


26aaa
26aaa
Triassic Footprints
   New Red Sandstone
Recent footprints




Dinosauria
   Ornithichnites


26b
26b
??




Dinosauria
   Ornithichnites


27
27
??


Coelacanthiformes
   Holoptychus
      (Coelacanth)

Dinosauria
   Megalichthys
Holoptychus


27a
27a
Recent
Jura Limestone


Actinopterygii
   Lepidosteus (gar)
Teleostei
   Aspidorhynchus




27b
27b
Carboniferous


Paramblypteriformes
   Amblypterus




27c
27c
Oolite
   Stonesfield


Pycnodontidae
   Pycnodus




27d
27d
Oolite
Lias of Lyme Regis (teeth)

Shark teeth
   (various)





27e
27e
Oolite
Lias at Lyme Regis (teeth)

Hybodontiformes
   Acrodus





27f
27f
   Lias of Sommersetshire

 Euselachii
   Ptychodus








Agassiz Orders of Fishes:
   Placoidians = Broad Plate
   Ganoidians = splendor (bright enamel surface)
   Ctenoidians = Comb (jagged scales)
   Cycloidians = smooth (horn or bone, no enamel)
    Lamellibranch = Bivalvia

Plant Fossil Illustrations from Buckland, Geology and Mineralogy (1837)
Pl.
Desc.
Note
Pl-4
Lycophyta
Club Mosses
Pl-7
Filicinophyta
Ferns
Pl-8
Cycadophyta
Cycads
Pl-9
Ginkgophyta
Pl-10
Coniferophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-11
Gnetophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-12
Anthophyta
Angiosperms
01-l 01 (panorama thru time - left)
Transition Series
Lycopodium
Lepidodendron
Flabelliform
Pl-6 Sphenophyta
   (horsetail)
   Equisteum 
      Calamites
        Asterophyllites
Aspidium
Polypodiopsida
   Osmunda
Cycathea



Pinopsida
   Auracaria
Arecales
   Palmacites



01-l 01 (panorama thru time - left)
Secondary Series

Arborecent Fern
Pteridopsida
    Pteris
Cycadopsida
   Cycas
    Zamia

Pinus
Thuia







Asparagales
   Dracaena

01-r
01
(panorama thru time - right)
Tertiary Series
Mauritia





Pinus

Ulmus (Elm)
Populus (Poplar)
Salix (Willow)
Arecales
   Cocos
      (coconut)
Arecaceae
    Elaeis
       (oil palm)

55
55
Carboniferous
Lepidodendron







56
56
Carboniferous plant fragments
Lepidodendron
   Sigillaria
   Ulodendron
   Favularia







56a
56a
Carboniferous





wood sections (400x)
  (fossil & modern)
Pinopsida
   Pinus Strobus
   Araucaria
      (Norfolk Pine)




57
57
Oolite (Upper Jurassic to
Lower Cretaceous)
   Portland Limestone
   Lower Purbeck beds


in situ stumps
in situ stumps



58
58
(modern)


Cycadopsida
   Cycas





59
59
(modern)


Cycadopsida
   Cycas
   Zamia





60
60
Oolite
between Portland Limestone
and Lower Purbeck beds


Cycadites
   trunk





61
61
Oolite
between Portland Limestone
and Lower Purbeck beds


Cycadites
   showing buds





62
62
fossil and recent


Petioles of recent
& fossil Cycads
Zamia





63-l
63-r
63
fossil and recent
Jurassic






Pandanus (mod.)
   Screw pines
   ?Podocarya (Jur.)

64
64
Tertiary - Mid-Eocene
   Gypsum of Aix
   Calcaire grossier






Arecales
   Palmacites
      leaf
      trunk

Pl.
Desc.
Note
Pl-4
Lycophyta
Club Mosses
Pl-7
Filicinophyta
Ferns
Pl-8
Cycadophyta
Cycads
Pl-9
Ginkgophyta
Pl-10
Coniferophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-11
Gnetophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-12
Anthophyta
Angiosperms



Invertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations  from Dana,   Manual of Geology (1896)
See also the
Illustrated Index
Formation
√ = Trilobite 
TODO: Link htms to pages, figures?
add more figs?

A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-22
Annelida
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-33
Hemichordata
A-34
Echinodermata
01-Lower Cambrian Fossils.html
  EOPALEOZOIC SECTION

p. 470
A-3 Porifera
   Leptomitus

Coral
   Archaeocyathus

p. 474
Crustacea
   Leperditia
   Aristozoe
   Protocaris
Hyolithellus (Ex.)
 (Prev. Mollusca)
p. 472
Gastropoda
   Scenella
   Stenotheca
   Platyceras
Bivalvia
   Fordilla
   Modioloides
Pteropoda
   (Sea Snails)
   Hyolithes
   Hyolithellus
   Salterella

p. 471
Lingulella (Ex)
Acrotreta
Orthis
Orthisina
Camarella
p. 470
Hemicordata
   Graptolite
     Spirocyathus

02-Middle Cambrian Fossils.html




p. 475
Gastropoda
   Haritia
   Stenotheca
Pteropoda
   Hyolithes


p. 475
Acrothele
Linnarasonia
Lingulella
Orthis


03-Upper Cambrian Fossils.html






p. 478
Gastropoda
   Holopea
   Ophileta
   Bellerophon
Pteropoda
   Hyolithes
   Matheria

p. 478
Lingulepis
Lingulella
Oolella
Triplesia
p. 477
Graptolite
 Dendograptus

04-Lower Silurian Fossils.html
   Ordovician



p. 497
p. 511
A-3 Porifera
   Protospongia  
A-3 Hexactinellida
 Archaeoscyphia
Pr-28 Chlorophyta
  (green algae)
  Receptaculites
  (calcareous algae)
Anthozoa (Coral)
   Flavistella
   Stroptelasma
   Tetradium
   Glyptocrinus

p. 499
Crustacea
   Leperditia

p. 499 p. 500
p. 502 p. 507-8
p. 511
Gastropoda
   Ophileta
   Holopea
   Maclurea
   Raphistoma
   Murchisonia
   Helicotoma
   Bellerophon
   Cyrtolites
Cephalopoda
   Actinoceras
   Orthoceras
   Kionoceras
   Cyrtoceras
   Trocholites

   Leptaena
   Lingula
   Strophomona
Bivalvia
   Avicula
   Modiolopsis
   Orthodesma
   Pterinea
   Ambonychia
   Tellinomya
p. 506
Stenolaemata
   Stictoporella
   Arthroclema

p. 502
Rhynchonella
Brachiopoda
   Orthis
   Crania
p. 498
Graptolite
   Loganograptus
   Phyllograptus

p. 499 p. 505
p. 510
Asteroidea
   Palaeaster
   Stenaster
Crinoidea
   Taxocrinus
Cystoidea (Ex.)
   Pleurocystites
05-Upper Silurian Fossils.html
NEOPALEOZOIC SECTION
Niagara Period 538-551



p. 547
Anthozoa (Coral)
   Zaphrentis
   Chonophyllum
   Favosites
   Halysites
   Helliolites


p. 545-6
worm tracks
   Hariania
   Cruziana (Rusophycus)
p. 544 p. 546
Brachiopoda
   Lingula
   Modiolopsis
   Pleurotomaria
   Bucania
Rhynchonella
   Pentamerus
Gastropoda
   Cyclonema
   Platyceras
   Platystoma
Bivalvia
   Megalomus
   Avicula
p. 545
Stenolaemata
   Monticulipora
p. 548
Leptaena
Plectambonites
Atrypa
Atrypina
p. 545
   Graptolithus
p. 547
Crinoidea
   Ichthyocrinus
   Caryocrinus
   Troostocrinus
06-Upper Silurian Fossils.html
Onondaga Period


p. 556-7
Arachnida (Merostomata)
(Sea Scorpion)
   Eurypterus
Arachnida
   Proscorplus



p. 556
Tentaculita (Ex)
   Tentaculites




07-Upper Silurian Fossils.html
Lower Helderberg Period


p. 564
Anthozoa (Coral)
   Omphyma
Cystiphylium
p. 564
Arachnida
   Pterygotus
p. 565
Merostomata
   Hemiaspis Limuloides
   (Horseshoe Crab)


p. 561
Cephalopod
   Gomphoceras
Bivalvia
   Grammysia


p. 560-1
Rhynchonella
   Pentamerus
Strophonella
Pentamerus
Entonia
Meristella
Orthis
Spirifer
Meristella


p. 559
Cystoidea
   Aplocystites
   Anomalocystitos
Crinoidea
   Croatocrinus
08-Lower Devonian Fossils.html
Devonian Age  575 -
   Old Red Sandstone

   Oriskany Period
   Corniferous Period  -591

p. 584
Anthozoa
   Cyanthophyllum (Coral)
   Zaphrentis (polyp)
   Favosites (Coral)
   Syringopora (Coral)
   Romingeria (Coral)



p. 585-6
Bivalvia
   Paracyclas
   Conocardium
Gastropoda
   Platyceras
   Goniatitos

p. 578  p. 585
Rhynchonella
   Spirifer
   Productella
   Cryptonella
   Rensselaeria


p. 585
Blastoid
   Nucleocrinus
09-Middle Devonian Fossils.html
Hamilton Period - 592-601
p. 597
A-3 (Porifera)    Demospongea
   Leptomitus
      Sphaerospongia
Anthozoa
   Hellophyllum (Coral)



p. 600
Malacostraca
   Echinocaris
Cirripedia
   (Barnacle)
   Turrilepas

p. 598-9
Bivalvia
   Grammysia
   Orthonota
   Microdon
Cricoconarida
   Styliolina
Cephalopod
   Goniatites

p. 598
Rhynchonella
   Atrypa
   Tropidoleptus
   Spirifer
   Athyris
   Ambocoella
   Chonetes
   Productella


10-Upper Devonian Fossils.html
Chemung Period - 602- 621

p. 611
A-3 Porifera
   Hexactinellida
      Dictyophyton
p. 615
Limuloides
   Protolimulus
p. 615
Crustacea
   Mesothyra
   Dipterocaris
   Palaeopalaemon
 

p. 612-3  Lunulicardium
   Glyptocardia
   Aviculopecten
   Pterinca
   Leptodesma
   Amniogenia
Gastropoda
   Bellerophon
   Bactrites
Cephalopoda
   Clymenia
   Goniatites

p. 612-3
Rhynchonella
   Spirifer
   Lelorhyncus
   Lingula
   Orbiculoidea
   Productella
   Atrypa


11-Upper Devonian Fossils.html
-627
Old Red Sandstone


p. 623
Arachnida
   Pterygotus
p. 627
Crustacea
   Arges

p. 626
Cephalopoda
   Clymenia
   Goniatites




12-Sub-Carboniferous Fossils.html
636-660

Anthozoa
   Lithostrotion (Coral)
TO P 640


p. 643
Cephalopoda
   Goniatites
p. 642
Fenestrida
   Archimedes
p. 642
Rhynchonella
   Orthis
   Spirifer
   Eumetria
   Chonetes
   Productus
   Spirifer

p. 640-1
Crinoidea
   Scaphiocrinus
   Actinocrinus
   Dorycrinus
   Woodocrinus
   Batocrinus
   Platycrinus
   Pentremites
Echinoidea
   Oligoporus
   Melonites
13-Permian-Carboniferous Fossils.html
660-684

p. 674
?Pr-2 Rhizopod
   Fusilina
p. 677
Arachnida
(Merostomata)
(Sea Scorpion)
   Eurypterus
   Prestwichia
p. 678-9
Crustacea
   Acanthotelson
   Palaeocais
   Anthracopalaemon
Insecta
   Miamia
   Gerarus
   Etoblattina
      (grasshopper)
   Paolia (wing)

p. 676
Polychaeta
   Spirorbis
p. 678
Myriapoda
   Xylobius
   Euphoberia
p. 675-6
Bivalvia
   Macrodon
   Allorisma
Gastropoda
   Pleurotomaria
   Bellerophon
   Macrochellus
   Dentalium
   Pupa
   Dawsonella
Cephalopoda
   Nautiloid
      Phacoceras
      Temnochilus

p. 675
Rhynchonella
   Productus
   Chonetes
   Spirifer
   Seminula


14-Permian Fossils.html
685-693





p. 685
Bivalvia
   Pseudomonitis
   Myalina
   Bakewellia
   Pleurophorus
Cephalopoda
   Nautiloid
      Medlicottia




15-Permian Subcarboniferous Fossils.html
693-

Limuloides
   Prestwichia
   (Horseshoe Crab)
Merostomata
   Cyclophthalmus
p. 701
Malacostraca
   Gampsonyx    (Shrimp)
Insecta
   Dictyoneura (wing)
   Etoblattina (wing)
   Titanphasma



p. 700
Rhynchonella
   Orthothetes
   Athyris
   Terebratula
   Productus
   Spirifer
   Nautilus



16-Triassic Fossils.html
749-



p. 750
Insecta
   Mormolucoidea
     (Larva)
    Insect tracks

p. 750
Bivalvia
   Estheria





17-Jurassic Fossils.html
756-768





p. 758-9
Bivalvia
   Trigonia
   Monotis
   Tancredia
   Lima
   Entolium
   Pinna
   Aucella
Cephalopoda
   Ammonoidea
      Arnioceras


p. 757
Ammonite
   Sageceras
   Trachyceras
p. 758
Cephalopoda
   Belemnites
   Quenstedioceras
p. 758
Crinoidea
   Pentacrinus
18-Triassic-Jurassic Fossils.html
770-790

p. 777
A-3 Porifera
   Tremadictyon
Anthozoa
   Montlivaltia
   Isastraea
p. 783
Arachnida
   Palpipes (spider?)

p. 783
Insecta
   Odonata
      Libellula
Malacostraca
   Archaeoniscus
   Decapoda
      Eryon
     
Palpipes priscus

p. 771  p. 779  p. 782
Bivalvia
   Gervillia
   Myophoria
   Avicula
   Estheria
   Lima
   Gryphaea
   Ostrea
   Exogyra
   Trigonia
   Diceras
Cephalopoda
   Ammonoidea
      Ceratites
      Cladiscites
      Pleuroceras
      Corniceras
      Stephanoceras
      Cosmoceras
   Belemnite (osselet)
   Belemnoteuthis
Decapoda
   Pemphix
Gastropoda
   Nerinea

p. 779
Rhynchonella
   Camomella
   Spiriferina
   Terebratula

p. 771  p. 778
Crinoidea
   Encrinus
   Apocrinus
   Saccosoma
   Pentacrinus
Euechnoidea
 (Sea Urchin)
   Pseudodiadema
   Cidaris
p. 428
Echnoidea
   Clypeus 
19-Cretaceous Fossils.html
832-865

p. 834
?Pr-2 Rhizopod
   Patellina
p. 840
Anthozoa
   Hindeastraea (Coral)



p. 835  p. 840-2
Bivalvia
   Gryphaea
   Exogyra
   Radiolites
   Requienia
   Aucella
   Ostrea
   Inoceramus
   Exobyra
   Corallochama
Gastropoda
   Nerinen
   Pyrifusus
   Fasciolaria
   Anchura
   Margarita
   Bulla
Cephalopda
   Belemnitella
   Ammonoidea
      Placenticeras
      Scaphites
      Baculites
   Nautilus

p. 840
Rhynchonella
   Terebratula

p. 834
Euechnoidea
   Enallaster
20-Cretaceous Fossils.html
860-863

p. 860
?Pr-2 Rhizopod
   Lituola
   Fiabellina
   Chrysalidina
   Cuneolina
A-3 Porifera
   Siphonia
  



p. 861
Bivalvia
   Unio
   Rudistes
      Hippurites
      Radiolites
      Sphaerulites
Gastropoda
   Nerinea
   Cinulla
   Viviparus (Paludina)
Cephalopda
   Ammonoidea
      Crioceras
      Ancyloceras
      Hamites
      Toxoceras
      Turrilites



p. 860
Euechnoidea
21-Eocene-Miocene Fossils.html
894-911

p. 922
PR-3 Foraminifera
   Nummulites

p. 900
Insecta
   Prodryas (butterfly)
   Tipula (Cranefly)

p. 896-900
Cephalopda
   Lyria
   Ammonoidea
      Enclimatoceras
Gastropoda
   Volutillithes
   caricella
   Mesalia
   Belosepia
   Turritella
   Pyrazisinus
   cerithium
   Orthaulax
   Strombus
Bivalvia
   Ostrea
   Dosiniopsis
   Venericardia
   Pterpsis
   Turritella
   Crassatella
   Pecten
   Mortonia
   Orbgitoides
   Dentalium
   Ecphora
   Striarca
   Crepidula
   Cypraea
   Arca
   Venus rugatina
   Arcoptera




22-Pleistocene Fossils.html
998-1003










Modern Species

p. 057
Euplectella speciosa
p. 164, p. 437
Pr-18 - diatoms
  Melosira
  Coscinodiscus
  Trachelomonas
  Campylodiscus
  Gomphonema
  Cocconema
  Cymbella
  Epithemia
  Himantidium
  Eunotia
  Tabellaria
  Odontidium
  Cocconeis
  Navicula
  Pinnularia
  Mastogloia
  Surirella
  Synedra
  Fragitaria
  Pleurosigma
  Actinoptychus
  Melosira
p. 429
 Sea Anemone
   Actinia
Corals:
   Dendrophyllia
   Gorgonia
A-3 Hydrozoa
   Hydra
   Syncoryne
   p. 430
      Sertularia
p. 432
 Sponge spicules
Pr-2 Rhizopods
Pr-31Radiolaria 



p. 059
Gastropoda
   Styliola
p. 424-5
Cephalopoda
   Loligo(squid)
   Nautilus
Gastropod
   Helix
Pteropod
   Cleodora
p. 426
Bivalvia
   Magellania
   Spirifer
   Athyris
   Atrypa
  

p. 425
Eschara
p. 425-7
Terebratula
Lingulata
   Lingula
   Obolus
   Siphonotreta
   Discinisca
Rhynchonella
  Strophomena
Plectambonites
   Orthis
Productus
Choneles
Calceola
Crania




p. 058
Crinoidea
   Pentacrinus
      decorus
p. 428
Echnoidea
   Clypeus
      (Oölite)
Crinoidea
   Pentacrinus
   Batocrinus
      (plates)
p. 429
Crinoidea
   Encrinus
   Callocystites
Asteroidea
   Palaeaster
Echnoidea
   Echinus
Formation
√ = Trilobite 
TODO: Link htms to pages, figures?
add more figs?

A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-22
Annelida
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-33
Hemichordata
A-34
Echinodermata
 

Vertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations  from Dana,   Manual of Geology (1896)
See also the Illustrated Index
Formation
Agnatha
Jawless Fish
Chondrichthyes
Cartilagenous Fish
Osteichthyes
Bony Fish
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia


p. 417
vertebrated heterocercal tails: ancient (sharks)
   Palaeoniscus (Permian-- also p. 705)
non-vertebrated homocercal tails: later (gars)
   Thrissops tail (?)




01-Lower Cambrian Fossils.html







02-Middle Cambrian Fossils.html







03-Upper Cambrian Fossils.html







04-Lower Silurian Fossils.html







05-Upper Silurian Fossils.html







06-Upper Silurian Fossils.html

p. 557
Placodermi (Ex)
   (Early Jawed Fish)
   Palaeaspis

p. 566
Chondrostei
   (Ray-finned fish)
   Pteraspis
   Cophalaspis




07-Upper Silurian Fossils.html







08-Lower Devonian Fossils.html







09-Middle Devonian Fossils.html







10-Upper Devonian Fossils.html
 

p. 616
Placodermi (Ex)
   (Early Jawed Fish)
   Bothriolepis
   Holonema
p. 620
Selachian
   Acanthodes affinis
      (Spiny Shark)
p. 617-8
Sarcopterygii
   Dipnoan "Lung Fish"
      Phaneropleuron
Ganoid (thick bony scales)
   Glyptolepis
   Eusthenopteron
   Chirolepis






11-Upper Devonian Fossils.html

p. 624
Placodermi (Ex)
   (Early Jawed Fish)
   Cephalaspis
   Coccosteus
   Pterichthys

p. 625
Ganoid
   Holopthychius
Sarcopterygii
   Dipnoan "Lung Fish"
      Dipterus




12-Sub-Carboniferous Fossils.html

p. 644
shark teeth
   Cestraciont
      Cochliodus
   Carcharopsis
   Cladodus
   Orodus


p. 645
Dinosauria
   footprints
      Sauropus


13-Permian-Carboniferous Fossils.html

p. 680-1
Selachian (Shark)
   Agassizodus (jaw)
   Edestus (fin-spine)
p. 680
Ganoid
   Eurylepis
   Coelacanthus

p. 683-4
   Amphibamus
   Molgophis
footprints
   Nasopus
   Limnopus
   Dromopus
   Baropus
  



14-Permian Fossils.html




p. 686-8
(Crocodile?)
   Eryops (head)
   Cricotus (head)
Sauropsida
   Mesosaurus tumidus


15-Permian Subcarboniferous Fossils.html


p. 702-3
   Cochilodus
   Ctenacanthus (spine)
   Pleuracanthus (= Diplodus)
p. 705
Ganoid
   Palaeoniscus

p. 706
Sauropsida
   Proterosaurus
   Palaeochatteria (head)



16-Triassic Fossils.html


p. 751
Ganoid
   Catopterus
p. 751
Footprints
   Amosopus
p. 752-4
Dinosauria footprints
   Macropterua
   Apatichnus
   Anomoepus
   Otozoum
   Brontozoum
Dinosauria
   Anchisaurus
   Bathygnathus (teeth)
   Clepsysaurus
Crocodilian (teeth)
   Belodon    

p. 754
   Dromatherium (jaw)
   Microconodon
17-Jurassic Fossils.html




p. 761-2
Ichthyosauria
   Baptanodon (paddle)
Sauropsida
   Diplodocus longus (head)
p. 763-6
Dinosauria
   Morosaurus (leg)
   Brontosaurus
   Apatosaurus
   Stegosaurus
   Camptosaurus
   Laosaurus (leg)
   Ceratosaurus
Testudines
   Glyptops (skull, carapace)
p. 767
Mammal jaws
   Allodon
   Ctenacodon
   Stylacodon
   Dryolestes
   Laodon
   Asthenodon
   Tinodon
   Diplocynodon
   Docodon
   Menacodon
   Euneodon
   Priacodon
   Paurodon


18-Triassic-Jurassic Fossils.html


p. 784
Ganoids
   Dapedius
   Aspidorhyncus
p. 772
Mastodonsaurus
p. 772  p. 784-8
Sauropsida
   Telerpeton
   Ichthyosaurius
   Pleisosaurus
   Mystriosaurus
Pterosauria
   Pterodactylus
   --- Coprolyte
   Rhamphorhynchus
Avetheropoda
   Archaeopteryx

p. 789
Mammal Jaws
   Amphilestes
   Amphilylus
   Phascolotherium
   Triconodon
   Peramus
   Spalacotherium
   Perniestes
   Peraspalax
   Leptocladus
   Amblotherium
   Phascolestes
   Achyrodon
   Stylodon
   Athrodon
   Bolodon
   Plagiaulax
   Stereognathus

19-Cretaceous Fossils.html

p. 843
Shark teeth
   Otodus
   Lamna
   Corax
   Oxyrhina
   Ptychodus


p. 844-9
Dinosauria
   Claosaurus
   Triceratops
   Ornithomimus
Edestosaurus (Clidastes)
Squamata
   Mosasaurus
Pteranodon
p. 850
Hesperornis
  (showing teeth)
p. 853
Marsupials - jaws, teeth
   Cimolestes
   Didelphops
   Batodon
   Stagodon
   Oracodon
   Dipriodon
   Halodon
   Tripriodon
20-Cretaceous Fossils.html


p. 862
Teleost (earliest salmon)
   Ostneroides

p. 863-4
Dinosauria
   Iguanodon skull
Mosasaurids (first appearance)
   Mosasaurus skull


21-Eocene-Miocene Fossils.html

p. 901
Shark teeth
   Carcharodon
   Lamna
   Notidanus


p. 901
Testudines
    Testudo (carapace)

p. 903-12
Theriiformes
   Phenacodus
Coryphodon
Thillotherium (Beaver)
Eohippus (toes/feet)
Dinocerata
   Tinoceras
Perissodactyla
   Palaeosyops
   Titanotherium (->Rhino)
      Brontops
      Elotherium
      Oreodon
      Hydracodon (teeth)
Artiodactyl
Cetacean (dolphin/whale)
   Cetotherium (Baleen whale)
p. 913-5
Horse type feet and molars
    Orohippus
    Mesohippus
    Mohippus
    Protohippus
    Pliohippus
    Equus
Ungulate brains
Rodent burrows?
p. 925
Dinotherium (skull)
22-Pleistocene Fossils.html
See p. 1023  General Observations






p. 998
   Elephas primogenius (tooth)
   Mastodon
p. 1000-1
Megalonyx (sloth) claw
Cetacean
   Delphinapteris (skull)
p. 1002-3
Xenarthra (Edentata)
   Megatherium (Sloth)
   Doedicurus
   Glyptodon
p. 1007
Diprotodon
    
Formation
Agnatha
Jawless Fish
Chondrichthyes
Cartilagenous Fish
Osteichthyes
Bony Fish
Amphibia
Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia


Selachians = Chondrichthyes

Mollusca types (Mantell p. 367)
Acephala = (no head).
   Lamellibranchia (plated gills) = Bivalvia
   Brachiopoda (arm-feet)
   Tunicata = (elastic mantle or tunic)
Encephala = (head)
   Cephalopoda (feet around the head)
   Gasteropoda (feet under the body)
   Pteropoda (wing-feet)

Plant Fossil Illustrations  from Dana,   Manual of Geology (1896)
See also the Illustrated Index
Formation
Pl-4
Lycophyta
Pl-6
Sphenophyta
(horsetail)
Pl-7
Filicinophyta
Pl-8
Cycadophyta
Pl-9
Ginkgophyta
Pl-10
Coniferophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-11
Gnetophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-12
Anthophyta
Angiosperms
08-Lower Devonian Fossils.html
p. 583
Psilophyton
Lepidodendron

p. 583
Seed Ferns
   Equisetopsida
      Sphenophyllum
   Filicopsida
      Caulopteris





09-Middle Devonian Fossils.html
p. 595-6
Lepidodendron
Sigillaria



p. 596
Equiseta
    Calamite
        Asterophyllites
p. 595
Seed Ferns
   Neuropteris


p. 595
Pinopsida
   Cordaites
Progymnosperm
   Archaeopteris


10-Upper Devonian Fossils.html
 
p. 609
Archaeopteris
Aneimites
Sigillaria
Lepidodendron




p. 609
Pinopsida
   Dictyo-cordaites


12-Sub-Carboniferous Fossils.html
p. 667-8
Lepidodendron
   tree-fern scars
p. 669
Lepidodendron cone
   tree-fern scars


p. 671
Asterophyllites
  
Calamites
   Sphenophyllum
p. 670-1
fern leaves
   Odontopteris
   Alethopteris
   Sphenopteris
   Neuropteris
   Pecopteris



p. 672-3
Pinopsida
   Cordaites
      fruits
         Cordalites
         Trigonocarpus
         Cardiocarpus
         Botryoconus
         Cordalanthus


13-Permian-Carboniferous Fossils.html
p. 705
   Neuropteris
   Walchia







14-Permian Fossils.html








15-Permian Subcarboniferous Fossils.html








p. 750 "The vegetation of the Triassic was characterized not by Siglliarids and Lepidodendrids, like that of the Carbonic era, but by Cycads, Conifers, Ferns, and Equiseta."
16-Triassic Fossils.html





p. 749
fronds:
   Podozamites
   Pterophyllum
   Clathropteris
   Oligocarpia
   Toeniopteris


17-Jurassic Fossils.html








18-Triassic-Jurassic Fossils.html



p. 756
Anomozamites
Otozamites
Encephalartos
p. 770
   Voltzia
   Pterophyllum
p. 776
   Mantellia stumps




19-Cretaceous Fossils.html


p. 832
Sphenopteris
p. 832
  Dioönites
p. 833
   Podozamites

p. 833
   Sequoia
   Salisburia

p. 832
   Ficus
   Protaeiphyllum
20-Cretaceous Fossils.html
upper cretaceous






p. 838
   Sassafras
   Lirlodendron
   Andromeda
   Myrsine
   Salix
   Eucalyptus
      Eu. nut
21-Eocene-Miocene Fossils.html
p. 894
Infusorial Earth
   Pinnularia
   Odontklium
   Grammatophora
   Spongiolithis
   Melosira
   Actinocyclus
   Coscinodiscus
   Triceratium
   Actinoptychus
   Dictyocha
   Navicula






p. 895-6
   Quercus
   Cinnamomum
   Calamopsis
   Fagus (nut)
   Carpolithes (nut)
22-Pleistocene Fossils.html
See p. 1023  General Observations








Modern


p. 436
Pteridopsida
   Marsilea
      (water fern)
   Pilularia
   Salvinia
p. 434
Cycas circinalis




Formation
Pl-4
Lycophyta
Pl-6
Sphenophyta
(horsetail)
Pl-7
Filicinophyta
Pl-8
Cycadophyta
Pl-9
Ginkgophyta
Pl-10
Coniferophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-11
Gnetophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-12
Anthophyta
Angiosperms

Rhizocarp =
Marsilea quadrifolia - European Water Fern Pl-7 Polypodium    class Pteridopsida

Invertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations  from Mantell, Medals of Creation (1844)
Formation
√ = Trilobite 
TODO: Link htms to pages, figures?
add more figs?

A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-22
Annelida
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-33
Hemichordata
A-34
Echinodermata
Cretaceous
   Chalk Group (SE England)
   Portland Limestone
   Greensand
Wenlock Limestone

p. 254
   Retepora
A-3 Porifera
   Morrisiana
p. 261-4
   Siphonia p. 259
   Choanites (Suberites)
p. 256
A-3 Hexactinellida
   Scyphia
   Verticellipora
   Lithododendron
   Ventriculites p. 276
A-3 Demospongea
   Ocellaria p. 279

Anthozoa (Coral) p. 284
   Caryophyllia
   Idomonea
   Reterora
   Favosites p. 295
Hydrozoa (Fire Coral)
   Millepora




Ventriculites
p. 256
Cheilostomata
   Lunulites
p. 284
Crisia?

p. 291
   Graptolites

Wenlock Limestone -- Silurian
Dudley Limestone -- Silurian

Anthozoa (Coral) p. 298
   Cyathophyllum
   Astrea p. 300
   Syringopora
   Anthophyllum
   Caryophyllia



p. 425
Gastropoda
   Euomphalus
   Natica
   Pleurotomaria




Oolite -- Jurassic
Oxford Clay
Lias -- Lower Jurassic





p. 388 
 Bivalvia
   Trigonia
   Gryphaea Incurva
Cephalopda
   Ammonoidea
       Ammonites



p. 388
Pseudodiadema
   Cidaris

Middle Eocene -- 40 Ma





p. 373
Bivalvia
   Turritella





Cretaceous
   Chalk Group (SE England)

p. 432
   Coprolites



p. 363
Bivalvia
   Gryphaea (Oyster)
p. 390
   Limoida
      Plagiostoma
p. 393
   Pterioida
      Inoceramus




Jura Limestone
   (199.6-145.5 Ma)
Triassic-Cretaceous
   Chalk Group (SE England)

Bellerophon



Cephelapoda p. 463
   Belemnitida
      Belemnites
      Belemnitella




p. 340, 346
Euechinoidea
   Hemicidaris
      (Turban Echinus)
   Cidaris
       Spines (p. 348)
   Galerites (p. 349-352)
   Ananchytes
Oolite





Gastropoda
   Bellerophon p. 476
Cephelapoda p. 485
   Orthoceras




Crinoidea p. 325
   Actinocrinites
   Pentacrinite
Chalk/Crag/Oolite (Cretaceous)
Silurian
Carboniferous (Limulus)

p. 550
Merostomata
   Limulus
p. 520
Cirripedia
   (Barnacles)
   Balanus
   Loricula
   Pollicipes
   Pholades
p. 532 p. 542
Crustacea
   Etyus (shell)
   Corystes
   Cypris p. 545
p. 537,540
Astacoidea
   (Crayfish)
   Astacus
Insecta p. 574
   Odonata
      Libellula
   Wings p. 576,8
  
p. 524
Worm Tracks
    Nereites





Plates



p. xix  Plate I
   Crustacean

p. xix  Plate I
Ammonite


























Formation
√ = Trilobite 
TODO: Link htms to pages, figures?
add more figs?

A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-22
Annelida
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-33
Hemichordata
A-34
Echinodermata


CIRRIPEDIA = Barnacles (A-21)

Rhizopods
Malacostraca
Anthozoa =
Arachnids 
Crustacea = A-21 Class
Ostracod = Mandibulata Class
    Lamellibranch = Bivalvia
Crinoids = A-34 Class
Merostomata =
Selachian = Chondrichthyes Class
Eurypterids = Sea Scorpions Class Arachnida
Placoderms =

Univalve = Gastropoda (Snails, slugs)
Bryozoa =


Vertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations  from Mantell, Medals of Creation (1844)
Formation
Agnatha
Jawless Fish
Chondrichthyes
Cartilagenous Fish
(no Phosphate of Lime)
Osteichthyes
Bony Fish
Contain Ca3(PO4)2
(Phosphate of Lime)
Amphibia Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia

Tertiary
 

p. 587
Actinopterygii
   (ray-finned)
   Lebias Cephalotes




Devonian
Chalk
Wealdon
   Tilgate forest
Lower Chalk
New red


p. 648
Placodermi (Ex)
   (Early Jawed Fish)
   Coccosteus
   Pterichthys
p. 666
Sauroids teeth & jaws
   Saurocephalus
   Enchodus


p. 693
  Iguana
     jaw & teeth
   (modern)
p. 713
Ichthyosauria
   Ichthyosaurus
      hind paddle
p. 741,749
Dinosauria
   Iguanodon
      tooth
      bones & claws
p. 775-6
Testudines (turtle)
   Chelonia Benstedi
      beak, rib
p. 806
   leg bone
p. 813-4
footprint
+ raindrops
+ tracks

Plates

p. xxvii  Plate VI
Teeth (various phyla)
   Psammodus
   Plychodus
   Labyrinthodon
   Iguanodon
   Goniopholis
   Hylaeoaurus
   Megalosaurus
   Dendrodus
   Ichthyosaurus
   Lepidotus
p. xix  Plate I
Pycnodus (Limestone)
p. xx  Plate II
Smelt (Chalk)




Formation
Agnatha
Jawless Fish
Chondrichthyes
Cartilagenous Fish
(no Phosphate of Lime)
Osteichthyes
Bony Fish
Contain Ca3(PO4)2
(Phosphate of Lime)
Amphibia Reptilia
Aves
Mammalia


Fish Orders (Mantell p. 595) based on scales
   Placoid (broad enamelled plates) (Sharks, rays)
   Ganoid (splendid) enamelled plates of horn or bone. Structure identical with teeth (Sturgeon)
   Ctenoid (toothed or comb-like) (Perch)
   Cycloid (circle) plates of bone or horn, not enamelled. (Salmon, Carp)
Sauroid (lizard-like) fish (extinct)
Fish tails
   homocercal (equal lobes or branches) (later - Chalk)
   heterocercal (unequal tail -- shark) (earlier -- carboniferous)



Invertebrate Animal Fossil Illustrations  from Walcott, Cambrian Fossils (1886)
Note: All plates & descriptions available here at 100 and 300 ppi.
Selected images listed below.
Formation
√ = Trilobite 
TODO: Link htms to pages, figures?
add more figs?

A-4
Coelenterata
(Cnidaria)
A-20
Chelicerata
A-21
Mandibulata
A-22
Annelida
A-26
Mollusca
A-29
Bryozoa
(moss-animal)
A-30
Brachiopoda
A-33
Hemichordata
A-34
Echinodermata
Middle Cambrian
   Table of Distribution

A-3 Porifera
   Demispongea
      02 Leptomitus
      04 Ethmophyllum
      05 Ethmophyllum
Phyllopoda (Ex.)
   15 Protocaris Marshi


12-Gastropoda
   Platyceras
   08-Scenella
   Scenella
   Stenotheca
Unknown (Ex)
   Salterella
13-Pteropoda
14-Pteropoda
   (sea-snails)
   Hyolithes
   Salterella
   Hyolithellus

   07-Lingulella (Ex)
      Kutorgina
      Iphidea
      Orthisina
      Camarella
   08-Acrotreta
      Kutorgina
      Orthis?
      Lingulata
         Lingulella
      Leperditia
   09-Kutorgina
      (Lampshell)
      Lingulata
         Lingulida
      Acrothele
   10-Obolella
   11-Obolella

11-Graptoloidea
   Diplograptus
   Climacograptus






Crinoidea
   Eocystites


Plant Fossil Illustrations  from Mantell, Medals of Creation (1844)
Formation
(list of British locations)
Pl-4
Lycophyta
Club Mosses
Pl-6
Sphenophyta
horsetails
Pl-7
Filicinophyta
Ferns
Pl-8
Cycadophyta
Cycads
Pl-9
Ginkgophyta
Pl-10
Coniferophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-11
Gnetophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-12
Anthophyta
Angiosperms
Carboniferous (lower)


p. 081
Pecopteris leaf





Norfolk Chalk
p. 104
Confervites
   "Aquatic plant"







Silurian
Wealden
p. 105
Pr-17 Phaecohyta
   (brown algae)
   Fucus
      Fucoides
p. 108
Equisetopsida
   Equisetum
      (stem)
p. 122-4
Lonchopteris*
Clathropteris?





Carboniferous
p. 131-5
Sigillaria
   roots
p. 136
Sigillaria
   section
p. 140-2
Stigmaria
   stem
   section
p. 143
Sigillaria
   trunk, roots
p. 146
Lepidodendron
   branch
p. 149-50
Lepidodendron
   fruit
Halonia stem
Knorria stem

p. 110
Asterophyllites
  
Calamites
      (root, stem)
p. 152-3
Asterophyllites
   foliage
Seed vessels:
      Cardiocarpon
      Carpolithes
      Trigonocarpum

p. 110
Pecopteris
   leaf, stalk
p. 115
Sphenopteris
p. 117-8
Neuropteris
Odontopteris
p. 120
Pecopteris
p. 127
Caulopteris
   (stem)
p. 154
Pteridopsida
   Marsileaceae?
      Sphenophyllum
       leaf
p. xix  Plate I
   fern






Lower Oolite
Oolite
New Red Sandstone
Stonesfield Slate
Lias, Lyme Regis

p. 164
Calamites
p. 114
Pachypteris*
p. 116-7
Cyclopteris
Glossopteris
p. 119-120
Anomopteris
Toeniopteris
p. 123
Phlebopteris
   (with seeds)
p. 157-8
Leaves
   Zamia
   Pterophyllum
p. 160-1
fruits
   Zamia


p. 164
Pinopsida
   Araucaria*


London Clay (Eocene)
Tilgate Forest







p. 178-9
Seeds
   Curcurmites
      (Cucumber)
   Petrophiloides
   Wetherellia
   Faboidea
      (Bean)
   Nipadites
   Zulinosprionites
   Leguminosites
   Cupanoides
   Mimosites (pod)
p. 183
Clathraria
Paris Tertiary
   (= Cenozoic)







p. 188
seedpods
   Chara
   Carpolithes
   Nymphea
Nuts & flowers
   Thalictroides
   Antholithes
   Juglans
       (walnut)
Gypseous Marl
    Stradella







p. 195
Leaves
   Poplar
   Maple
   Water-spike
   Willow
   Chestnut
Plates
p. xxiii  Plate IV
   living Infusoria
p. xxi  Plate III
   fossil twigs & branches
p. xxv  Plate V
wood sections
   Abies
   Stigmaria








Formation
Pl-4
Lycophyta
Club Mosses
Pl-6
Sphenophyta
horsetails
Pl-7
Filicinophyta
Ferns
Pl-8
Cycadophyta
Cycads
Pl-9
Ginkgophyta
Pl-10
Coniferophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-11
Gnetophyta
(gymnosperm)
Pl-12
Anthophyta
Angiosperms

"-pteris" = fern


Echinoderm (A-34) Illustrations from Agassiz, Echinoderm Fossiles de la Suisse (1840)
Plate
Figure
Descriptions
Species
01 Plates 1 to 13b.
p. 2 fig. 1-3 Disaster Propinquus Jurassic
p. 4 fig. 4-6 Disaster Carinatus
p. 5 fig. 7-11 Disaster Ringens
p. 6 fig. 12-14 Disaster Analis Lower Oolite
02
p. 11 fig. 1-3 Hollaster Sandoz DuB.
p. 12 fig. 4-6 Hollaster L'Hardy DuB.
p. 13 fig. 7-9 Hollaster Subglobosus Ag.
p. 14 fig. 10-12 Hollaster Complanatus Ag.
03
p. 17 fig. 1-3 Hollaster Laevis Ag.
p. 17 fig. 4-5 Hollaster Transversus Ag.
p. 19 fig. 6-8 Hollaster Intermedius Ag.
p. 20 fig. 9-10 Hollaster Altus Ag.
p. 21 fig. 11-13 Hollaster Suborbicularis Ag.
p. 24 fig. 14-15 Micraster Cor-Anguinum Ag.
p. 26 fig. 16-18 Micraster Minimus Ag.
p. 27 fig. 19-20 Micraster Helveticus Ag.
04
p. 7 fig. 1-3 Disaster Capistratus
p. 8 fig. 11-13 Disaster Voltzii
p. 22 fig. 9-11 Hollaster Couloni Ag.
p. 30 fig. 4-6 Ananchytes Ovata Lam.
p. 34 fig. 7-8  Spatangus Nicoleti Ag.
05
p. 35 fig. 1-3 Clypeus Solodurinus Ag
p. 36 fig. 4-6 Clypeus Patella Ag
06
p. 85 fig. 1-3 Discoidea Macropyga Ag
p. 87 fig. 4-6 Discoidea Inflata Ag
p. 88 fig. 1-3 Discoidea Depressa Ag
p. 90 fig. 10-12 Discoidea Rotula Ag
p. 92 fig. 13-15 Discoidea Cylindrica Ag
p. 93 fig. 16 Discoidea Speciosa Ag
07
p. 40 fig. 4-6 Nucleolites Lacunosus Gldf.
p. 41 fig. 1-3 Nucleolites Subquadratus Ag.
p. 42 fig. 7-9 Nucleolites Olfersii Ag.
p. 43 fig. 13-15 Nucleolites Latiporus Ag.
p. 43 fig. 16-18 Nucleolites Micraulus Ag.
p. 44 fig. 10-12 Nucleolites Gracilis Ag.
p. 45 fig. 19-21 Nucleolites Scutatus Lam.
p. 46 fig. 22-24 Nucleolites Major Ag.
08
p. 49 fig. 1-3 Clypeus Gressly Ag.
p. 50 fig. 4-6 Clypeus Depressus Ag.
p. 51 fig. 7-9 Clypeus Renaudi Ag.
p. 52 fig. 10-11 Clypeus Alpinus Ag.
p. 53 fig. 12-14 Clypeus Neocomensis Ag.
p. 56 fig. 15-17  Pygorhynchus Minor Ag.
p. 55 fig. 18-20  Pygorhynchus Obovatus Ag.
09
p. 60 fig. 1-3 Echinolampas Eurysomus Ag.
p. 58 fig. 4-6 Echinolampas Studeri Ag.
p. 59 fig. 7-9 Echinolampas Escheri Ag.
p. 64 fig. 14-16 Conoclypus Conoideus Ag
10
p. 38 fig. 1 Catopygus Acutus Ag
p. 37 fig. 2-4 Catopygus Hugi Ag
p. 63 fig. 5-7 Conoclypus Anachoreta Ag
p. 64 fig. 8-10 Conoclypus Microporus Ag
p. 67 fig. 11-13 Conoclypus DuBois Ag
11
p. 69 fig. 1-3 Pygurus Montmollini Ag
p. 71 fig. 4-6 Pygurus Rostratus Ag
12
p. 81 fig. 13-16 Pygaster Laganoides Ag
13
p. 82 fig. 1-3 Pygaster Patelliformis Ag
p. 82 fig. 4-6 Pygaster Umbrella Ag
p. 74 fig. 1-3 Fibularia Alpina Ag
p. 78 fig. 4-6 Galerites Pygaea Ag
p. 77 fig. 7-9 Galerites Castanea Ag
p. 75 fig. 10-12 Hyboclypus Gibberulus Ag
13b
p. 73 fig. 1-2 Pygaster Conicus Ag
p. 72 fig. 3-4 Pygaster Productus Ag
p. 61 fig. 5-6 Echinolampas Dilatatus Ag.
p. 88 fig. 7-13 Discoidea Depressa Ag
14
Plates 14 - 23
p. 125 fig. 4-6 Tetragramma Brongniarti
p. 126 fig. 1-3 Tetragramma Planissimum Ag.
p. 130 fig. 7-9 Acrocidaris Minor Ag.
p. 129 fig. 10-12 Acrocidaris Formosa Ag.
p. 131 fig. 13-15 Acrocidaris Tuberosa Ag.
p. 132 fig. 16-17 Acrocidaris Nobilis Ag.
15
p. 137 fig. 1-3 Pedina Arenata Ag.
p. 136 fig. 4-6 Pedina Rotata Ag.
p. 136 fig. 7 Pedina Ornata Ag.
p. 130 fig. 8-13 Pedina Aspera Ag.
16
p. 104 fig. 1-5 Diadema Rotulare Ag.
p. 106 fig. 6-10 Diadema Bourgueti Ag.
p. 108 fig.11-15 Diadema Lucae Ag.
p. 109 fig. 16-18 Diadema Rhodani Ag.
p. 110 fig. 19-21 Diadema Dilatatum Ag.
p. 106 fig. 22-26 Diadema Macrostoma Ag.
17
p. 124 fig. 1-5 Diadema Homostigma Ag.
p. 123 fig. 6-10 Diadema Superbum Ag.
p. 121 fig. 11-15 Diadema Priscum Ag.
p. 122 fig. 16-20 Diadema Placenta Ag.
p. 117 fig. 26-30 Diadema Florescens Ag.
p. 116 fig. 31-35 Diadema Complanatum Ag.
p. 118 fig. 36-38 Diadema Aequale Ag.
p. 115 fig. 39-43 Diadema Tetragramma Ag.
p. 119 fig. 44-48 Diadema Meriani Ag.
p. 111 fig. 49-53 Diadema Pseudo-diadema Ag.
p. 114 fig. 54-58 Diadema Affine Ag.
18
p. 139 fig. 1-5 Acrosalenia Spinosa Ag.
p. 141 fig. 6-10 Acrosalenia Aspera Ag.
p. 140 fig. 11-14 Acrosalenia Conformis Ag.
p. 153 fig. 15-18 Hemicidaris Patella Ag.
p. 152 fig. 19-22 Hemicidaris Alpina Ag.
p. 152 fig. 25-26 Hemicidaris Undulata Ag.
19
p. 150 fig. 1-3 Hemicidaris Thurmanni Ag.
p. 151 fig. 4-6 Hemicidaris Angularis Ag.
p. 144 fig. 7-9 Hemicidaris Mitra Ag.
p. 144 fig. 10-12 Hemicidaris Crenularis Ag.
p. 147 fig. 13-14 Hemicidaris Stramonium Ag.
p. 149 fig. 15-17 Hemicidaris Diademata Ag.
20
p. 158 fig. 1 Cidaris Parandieri
p. 156 fig. 2-7 Cidaris Blumenbachii Munst.
p. 159 fig. 8-17 Cidaris Coronata Goldf.
21
p. 161 fig. 1-4 Cidaris Crucifera Ag.
p. 162 fig. 5-10 Cidaris Propinqua Munst.
p. 180 fig. 12 Cidaris Bacculifera Ag.
p. 166 fig. 11-18 Cidaris Vesiculosa Ag.
p. 168 fig. 19-22 Cidaris Clunifera Ag.
p. 171 fig. 24-26 Cidaris Pyrifera Ag.
p. 170 fig. 27 Cidaris Cucumifera Ag.
p. 170 fig. 28 Cidaris Meandrina Ag.
p. 169 fig. 29-30 Cidaris Aspera Ag.
21b
p. 171 fig. 1 Cidaris Spinosa Ag.
p. 172 fig. 2 Cidaris Horrida Mer.
p. 172 fig. 3 Cidaris Constricta Ag.
p. 173 fig. 4 Cidaris Stemmacantha Ag.
p. 174 fig. 5 Cidaris Alata Ag.
p. 174 fig. 6 Cidaris Triagonacantha Ag.
p. 175 fig. 7 Cidaris Pustilifera Ag.
p. 175 fig. 8 Cidaris Cladifera Ag.
p. 176 fig. 9 Cidaris Glandifera Goldf.
p. 177 fig. 10 Cidaris Cervicalis Ag.
p. 177 fig. 11 Cidaris Filograna Ag.
p. 178 fig. 13 Cidaris Cinnamomea Ag.
p. 178 fig. 14 Cidaris Alstatica Ag.
p. 163 fig. 15-17 Cidaris Oculata Ag.
p. 164 fig. 18-20 Cidaris Laeviscula Ag.
p. 165 fig. 21 Cidaris Novilis Munst.
p. 166 fig. 22 Cidaris Gigantea Ag.
p. 179 fig. 23 Cidaris Catenifera Ag.
p. 178 fig. 24 Cidaris Spatula Ag.
22
p. 184 fig. 1-3 Echinus Psammophorus Ag.
p. 184 fig. 4-6 Echinus Dubius Ag.
p. 186 fig. 7-9 Echinus Fallax Ag.
p. 185 fig. 10-12 Echinus Serialis Ag.
p. 180 fig. 13-15 Echinus Perlatus Desmar.
23
p. 189 fig. 1-5 Salenia Scutigera Gray
p. 190 fig. 6-10 Salenia Stellulata Ag.
p. 190 fig. 11-15 Salenia Areolata Ag.
p. 192 fig. 16-22 Goniopygus Peltatus Ag.
p. 193 fig. 23-31 Goniopygus Intricatus Ag.
p. 194 fig. 32-36 Arbacia Pilos Ag.
p. 196 fig. 37-39 Glypticus Hieroglyphicus Ag.
p. 197 fig. 40-42 Glypticus Affinis Ag.
p. 187 fig. 43-46 Echinus Gyratus Ag.

1888 Dawson-Plants some nice old plant illustrations
Hitchcock Footprints
1875 Dana-Corals
1870 Miller-Testimony of the Rocks

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FOOTNOTES

* The background is a fossil Coelacanth, one of the most ancient extant fishes (Figure *).  Long assumed to be extinct for over 65 million years, until specimens were discovered in South Africa off Madigascar by Marjorie Courtenay-Latimer in 1938. It is estimated that about 500 Coelacanths are alive today.

The collage is from Mantell, Medals of Creation (1844). It includes:
   Ammonites Mantelli, from the Chalk-marl, Sussex.
   Turrilites Costatus, from the Lower Chalk, Rouen.
   Fucoides Targionii, from the Firestone, Sussex.
   Echinus and Fusus, from Tertiary strata, Palermo.

 Carbonaceous-Foliage
Garden of Eden


^n01  One should note that traditional classification is based primarily on morphology (the physical appearance). In recent years, Cladistics has generated (is actively generating!) a somewhat different scheme of classification based on relatedness -- primarily inferrred by comparison at the level of genes and DNA sequencing.  Since the capacity to decode complette genomes was developed around the turn of the present century, this approach to classification has developed greatly, and holds promise for many new insights into implied genetic relationships at the very root.  "Although traditionally such cladograms were generated largely on the basis of morphological characters, genetic sequencing data and computational phylogenetics are now very commonly used in the generation of cladograms." [Wikipedia]

Note that some classification schemes go directly from phylum to order, which may lead to some confusion in nomenclature.  [GIVE EXAMPLES??]

A systematic description of classification is given ????WHERE????  TODO


13   ^n13  n

03   ^n03  n

04   ^n04  n

05   ^n05  n

06   ^n06  n

07   ^n07  n

08   ^n08  n

09   ^n09  n

10   ^n10  n

11   ^n11  n

12   ^n12  n

13   ^n13  n

14   ^n14  n

15   ^n15  n

16   ^n16  n

17   ^n17  n

18   ^n18  n

19   ^n19  n

20   ^n20  n


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REFERENCES
Paleobiology Database
ZipcodeZoo


mailbox Any comments or suggestions are welcome. Please email: webmaster@19thpsalm.org



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Posted dd Mmmm 201?